What is Menstruation and Know Everything About Period(Menstruation)

What is Menstruation?

Menstruation is controlled by the female hormones- follicle hormone (estrogen) and progesterone (progesterone). The uterus responds to estrogen by thickening the endometrial lining, which provides a surface for fertilised eggs to land. Additionally, progesterone facilitates the simpler implantation of a fertilised egg by thickening the uterine lining, a process made possible by estrogen. This is how female hormones help women get ready for pregnancy practically every month, but if pregnancy does not occur, female hormones decrease, the endometrium sloughs off, and menstruation occurs.

Furthermore, female hormones are secreted based on commands from the brain, so problems with the body or mind can disrupt the hormonal balance and cause changes or abnormalities in menstruation.

Complete Menstruation Mechanism

This is to remove the endometrium that is no longer needed when a baby cannot be born. When a woman is born, she has about 2 million ovarian follicles (atomic follicles) needed to make a baby in her ovaries. Then, when you reach puberty and your body is ready to have a baby, the mature ovarian follicles needed to make a baby will be excreted one by one in a regular cycle due to the action of female hormones. This is "ovulation".

The uterus, which is the place where the baby is raised, inflates the endometrial lining inside it during ovulation to get ready to receive the baby (fertilised egg). The endometrium expands to around 1 cm before menstruation, but if there is no pregnancy, the old endometrium is destroyed, allowing a new one to readily form, dissolve, and slough off with the blood. This is "menstruation". In other words, having regular periods means being ready to welcome your baby in a freshly made bed.

To expel the soft, clotted lining to make room for your baby's bed, it needs to become a free-flowing liquid. Therefore, when the endometrium is damaged, blood clot-dissolving enzymes are released. But when there is a lot of bleeding and thick endometrial, there is insufficient of this enzyme, which causes some endometrium to remain coagulated and be evacuated. This is one of the reasons for dysmenorrhea, that we will discuss later.

The endothelium will thicken and new tissue will form over the following month due to the basal layer that lies beneath the peeled layer. This is known as "menstruation," and it occurs in the uterus once a month as a result of female hormone activity.

When does your period start and how long does it last?

Menarche occurs at an average age of 12.3 years, and menopause occurs at an average age of 50.5 years. Female hormones are greatly involved in when menstruation begins and ends. Between the ages of 7 and 8, the release of female hormones starts to gradually rise, leading to menarche and the body becomes capable of producing a baby. The release of female hormones increases quickly from menarche until about the age of 20 when it peaks in your twenties. This is the best period to get pregnant and give birth, physically speaking. The secretion of female hormones gradually decreases starting in your late 30s. After the period when a woman can have a baby passes, the secretion of female hormones stops, and eventually menopause occurs. In general, women slowly say goodbye to female hormones over about 10 years after the onset of menopause.

Prelude To Menarche- Your entire body will become more feminine and rounded, and your breasts will progressively swell. Vaginal discharge starts to develop at the same time that pubic and armpit hair starts to grow. Adolescence is a time when the body develops quickly, but the mind cannot keep up with these changes, leading to several issues.

Premonition of Menopause- Menopause does not cause your periods to end abruptly; instead, it might cause them to be irregular, lasting longer than two weeks, or to come on suddenly, lasting twice a month. It can also cause your periods to become unstable, changing in quantity and sometimes even stopping altogether. This is caused by the unstable secretion of follicular hormones. It is generally said that menstrual cycles become shorter and eventually become longer, leading to menopause. During this period, you may feel mentally irritable and anxious.

Length of Menstrual Period?

The length of the menstrual period varies from person to person. It is linked to the characteristics of the body's anatomy in addition to monthly hormone secretion. During menstruation, the uterus tightens and expands in an attempt to force the blood inside out. However, the uterus's entrance and exit are tiny openings that are no bigger than a straw's hole. The blood in the uterus needs a specific amount of days to travel through and out of it.

The flow of blood is also influenced by the uterus's location. Most people's uterus is at an angle that allows blood to flow smoothly, but some people's uterus is tilted too far forward or backwards. This makes it difficult for blood to come out, so these people are more likely to experience prolonged bleeding or to experience increased bleeding in the second half of the day after taking a break.

Normal Interval Between Periods

Although there are individual differences, it seems most common for people to have an interval of 25 to 38 days. Your menstrual cycle is the time span that begins on the day you have your period and ends the day before the next one. The majority of people experience menstrual cycles every 25 to 38 days, those with short periods of less than 24 days are called frequent menstruation, and those that last more than 39 days are called oligomenorrhea.

A typical monthly cycle lasts three to seven days. However, a menstrual cycle that lasts only one or two days is referred to as short menstruation, and one that lasts more than eight days is a prolonged menstruation.

During Menstruation, Change In Mind & Body

During periods or menstruation, various changes occur along with changes in hormone secretion. Let's discuss body changes with the different menstruation periods-

Menstrual Period: When pregnancy does not occur, the secretion of both progesterone and follicular hormone decreases, and the endometrium that is no longer needed sloughs off and is excreted from the body along with the blood. This is your period. Right!! While this is the time when the secretion of female hormones is at its lowest, unpleasant symptoms like headaches, nausea, diarrhoea, anaemia, lethargy, swelling, and rough skin are more common during this time. You should visit a hospital if the symptoms are severe since you might have a latent disease.

Proliferation Phase(Follicular Phase): Due to the action of follicle-stimulating hormone, one of the primordial follicles in the ovary begins to develop. Follic hormones are released as the follicles grow, and the endometrial lining progressively thickens. Women are most attractive during this time because ovarian hormone release is at its peak. You'll have glossy skin and hair, your mood will be relaxed, and your thoughts will be positive. It is the ideal time to start the diet challenge because it's simple to see how your food is affecting you.

Ovulation Period: Luteinizing hormone is secreted and the egg is discharged from the follicle when follicular hormone secretion reaches its maximum level. It's ovulation right now. The period between two periods, that is, the two to three days between ovulation, is called the ovulation period and is the period when you have the most amount of vaginal discharge. During ovulation time, some persons may suffer ovulation pain. Potential reasons include bleeding or scarring when the egg ejects, or irritation of the peritoneum by follicles that have enlarged in anticipation of ovulation. If the pain is manageable, there's no reason to panic, but it varies greatly from person to person, and some people experience it as painful as menstrual pain. If the pain is severe, you may need to see a gynaecologist, take a measurement of your body temperature, and note the kind and timing of the pain. Additionally, there is a brief drop in follicular hormone levels during the ovulation phase, which may result in interphase bleeding, or bleeding similar to menstruation.

Secretion Phase (Luteal Phase): The follicle changes into the corpus luteum, a structure that secretes progesterone, once the egg is discharged. The lining of the uterus then softens in preparation for when a fertilised egg implants and a pregnancy occurs. Before your period starts, your body and mind become unstable due to the influence of female hormones. Unpleasant symptoms of premenstrual syndrome (PMS) include aching or engorged breasts, sensitive nipples, headaches, stiff shoulders, lower back pain, diarrhoea, acne, and rough skin. Irritability, sadness, sleeplessness, drowsiness, and overeating are additional symptoms.

How late does your period have to be to be considered “late”?

If you are one week past your scheduled date, consider yourself late. Menstrual cycles typically last between 25 to 38 days, and while they differ from person to person, most people have a consistent cycle that repeats once a month. You can experience anxiety if your rhythm is thrown off and your period is postponed for several days.

Your physical state can easily influence menstruation, so even in the absence of a specific cause, your period may arrive early or late for a few days. If there is a small difference, there's no need to panic, but if it's more than a week past the anticipated start date of your period, take note that it's likely delayed, identify the reason, and try to eliminate it. To determine whether your period is delayed, it is important to know your menstrual cycle. Keep track of your menstrual cycle in a way that suits you, such as writing it down in your calendar or notebook, or using an app.

Reason For Delay Period

The main reason for delaying in period is a possible imbalance of a female hormone called estrogen.

Regular menstruation means that female hormones are working normally. Conversely, if you're not getting your period on time, it could be because of improper secretion of female hormones for a variety of causes, which are listed below.

The best way to deal with this is to remove the cause of the disturbance in female hormones. Female hormone disruption can occur for several causes, some of which are listed below, but a simple solution is to eliminate stress from the body. Examples of this include maintaining a regular lifestyle, eating a healthy diet, and obtaining enough sleep and nourishment.

Causes Of Disordered Female Hormones

Mental Stress: Mental stress is one of the causes of female hormone disorders. Strong stress, like that which comes from relationship or job issues, causes abnormalities in the brain's hormonal centres, which interferes with the brain's ability to send signals to the ovaries. Menstrual rhythms are thrown off, and ovarian function declines. Try releasing it gradually and find your method of doing it, such as having a soothing bath or being surrounded by your favourite aroma.

Lack Of Sleep: When your body is under great physical stress, such as working overtime late at night, chronic lack of sleep, losing weight due to unreasonable dieting, or exercising harder than usual, your body prioritises self-protection and becomes involved in reproduction. Make an effort to put off doing the parts work until later. As a result, menstruation is delayed and ovarian function decreases 

Irregular Lifestyle, Excessive eating, Obesity, Dietary imbalance, Insufficient exercise are some more reasons.

FAQ (Frequently Asked Question) on Menstruation

What is menstruation?

Menstruation, commonly known as a period, is a natural biological process in females that involves the shedding of the uterine lining. It is part of the menstrual cycle, typically occurring monthly, where the body prepares for a potential pregnancy.

Why does menstruation occur?

Menstruation occurs as a result of the hormonal changes in a woman's body during her menstrual cycle. If fertilisation does not occur, the thickened uterine lining, prepared to nourish a potential embryo, is shed through the vagina.

What causes a woman to menstruate twice in a month?

Menstruating twice in a month, known as irregular menstruation, can be caused by various factors, including hormonal imbalances, stress, changes in birth control methods, or underlying health issues. Consulting a healthcare professional is advisable for a thorough evaluation.

Can men menstruate?

No, biologically, menstruation is a process exclusive to individuals with a female reproductive system. Men do not menstruate.

Do men menstruate?

No, menstruation is a female biological process related to the shedding of the uterine lining and the release of unfertilized eggs. Men, lacking a uterus, do not experience menstruation.

What is the best medicine for delayed menstruation?

The best approach to delayed menstruation depends on the underlying cause. It is crucial to consult with a healthcare professional to determine the reason for the delay, as treatments can vary. Hormonal medications, lifestyle changes, or addressing underlying health issues may be recommended.

Can the COVID vaccine be taken during menstruation?

Yes, there is no evidence to suggest that COVID vaccines should be avoided during menstruation. The COVID vaccine is generally safe and effective for menstruating individuals. It is advisable to consult with a healthcare provider for personalized advice.

How to stop menstruation immediately?

It is not advisable to try to stop menstruation abruptly without medical guidance. Menstruation is a natural process, and attempting to halt it suddenly may have adverse effects on hormonal balance and overall health. If you have concerns about your menstrual cycle, consult with a healthcare professional for appropriate guidance and potential interventions.

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