Biotin - Overview, History, Benefits, Precaution, Dosage

What is Biotin?

Biotin is a type of B vitamin and is water soluble. Hence, biotin is also known as Vitamin B7. It is synthesised by good bacteria in the human intestine. It is known as a hair vitamin because it helps to keep hair healthy. In addition, it is also great for the skin and relieves muscle pain.

Biotin is a colourless, needle-like crystal with no odour or taste. It is resistant to heat, light, and acid, although alkalis have the potential to damage its structure. Biotin is a crucial nutrient for human health because it aids in energy metabolism and supports healthy skin and mucous membranes. It is found in large amounts in the liver, kidney, muscle, mammary gland, and digestive system of the body, and it aids in the breakdown and metabolism of lipids and amino acids.

Although biotin exists in a form bonded to proteins in food, which makes it a component that is tough to decompose and break down, it is water-soluble and hence dissolves in water.

Good bacteria in the stomach produce biotin, which functions similarly to biotin obtained through food.

Although the amount created in the body is not yet known, it is believed that a healthy body can synthesise it without any issues. However, the amount synthesised in the body diminishes and may become insufficient as a result of smoking, drinking alcohol, leading to an irregular lifestyle, etc.

Absorption Of Biotin

Biotin is a water-soluble vitamin. It can be easily absorbed by the body. The majority of biotin is found attached to proteins. When proteins are digested, biotin is released, and it is largely absorbed by the jejunum (one of the segments in the small intestine). Hence, biotin is absorbed by the intestine and used by the body.

In order to produce energy, the body uses biotin as a coenzyme for the enzymes pyruvate carboxylase, which is involved in the metabolism of sugar, acetyl-CoA carboxylase, propionyl-CoA carboxylase, and 3-methylcrotonoyl-CoA carboxylase. Additionally, it is a vitamin that plays a significant role in maintaining healthy mucous membranes, hair, nails, and skin. Biotin is consumed through food or drink. When it is entered into the body, the body starts absorbing it.

History Of Biotin

Biotin was discovered in egg yolk in 1935 by Kegl of the Netherlands. ​It was named 'biotin' because it was studied as one of the constituents of bios, a factor necessary for the growth of microorganisms such as yeast. It is also called "vitamin H", derived from the German word for skin (Haut) because it is related to the prevention of skin inflammation. This vitamin H was isolated in pure form in the year 1935. IN 1942, an official structure of vitamin H was introduced among scientists. In addition, it is also called "coenzyme R" because it works as a coenzyme in the body.

Main Functions Of Biotin

Biotin plays an important role in the synthesis and metabolism of carbohydrates, fats, and amino acids, and in maintaining the health of the skin and mucous membranes.

The synthesis and metabolism of carbohydrates, lipids, and amino acids, as well as the preservation of the health of the skin and mucous membranes, all depend on biotin.

The majority of biotin consumed from food is bonded covalently to proteins. Thus, the pancreatic enzyme biotinidase first dissociates biotin from proteins before largely being absorbed in the jejunum of the small intestine and being transported to the blood. The sequence of biotin metabolism occurs in the liver, where biotin attaches to biotinidase and is taken up into the cell. However, once within the cell, it is split apart once more and serves as a coenzyme for four different forms of carboxylase.

Additionally, biotin is said to produce anti-inflammatory compounds that lessen allergic symptoms and help in many ways to the body.

Benefits Of Biotin

There are many benefits provided by biotin in the body when it is enough in the body.

Metabolism of sugar: Biotin is an active compound involved in the metabolism of sugar as a coenzyme. Glucose metabolism is a very important process for energy consumption in the body. It is especially required for the brain, nerve tissues, red blood cells, etc. As biotin acts as a coenzyme that helps "carboxylase", an enzyme that works when pyruvate is converted to oxaloacetate and promotes sugar metabolism. Hence. biotin is involved in sugar metabolism and regulates blood sugar levels. It is very ideal to improve in hyperglycemia or high blood sugar level cases.

Healthy Skin, Hair and Nails: Muscles, skin, mucous membranes, hair, etc. are made by synthesising proteins by gathering amino acids. Biotin works as a coenzyme and is also involved in amino acid metabolism. A lack of biotin impairs the activity of the enzyme carboxylase, and protein cannot be produced smoothly from amino acids, the skin, mucous membranes, and hair cannot be produced well, causing rough skin, hair loss, and grey hair. Biotin is very famous for protecting hair health. In addition, biotin works with zinc as a coenzyme to aid in the synthesis of nucleic acids (DNA and RNA), which aids in the production of proteins. For skin cells to regenerate often and stay in a healthy state, biotin is a crucial nutrient.

Improve Dermatitis: Atopic dermatitis can be effectively treated with biotin. The action of biotin is to prevent the release of histamine, a chemical that causes skin irritation and inflammation. In atopic dermatitis brought on by allergies, the body releases histamine, also known as histidine, which causes the skin to itch and become inflamed. Histidine and histamine are excreted in urine because biotin inhibits their synthesis.

Recovery From Fatigue: Biotin helps to recover from fatigue. It is so obvious that a lack of energy in the body causes fatigue. Lack of energy can make you feel more fatigued and slow down your recovery from fatigue. As said above, biotin helps in sugar metabolism and supports the generation of energy in the body. Enough energy production in the body leads to recovery from fatigue. Basically, biotin is involved in the breakdown of lactic acid. Lactic acid causes fatigue and muscle pain, so you can expect fatigue recovery effects by breaking it down.

Prevent Hair Loss: Keratin is an important protein for hair. It maintains the shine and quality of the hair. Biotin helps to stimulate keratin production in the hair. In addition, it also increases the rate of hair follicle growth. Hence, it reduces hair fall and boosts hair growth. Biotin supplement is even suggested by professionals for hair loss problems.

Protect Heart: Biotin is an important vitamin for heart function. A healthy level of biotin stimulates the blood flow in the vessels as well as in the heart. Healthy blood flow and blood circulation is the key to preventing the heart from many serious problems. In addition, it is also great to increase the high-density lipoprotein and decrease the low-density lipoprotein, which is great to reduce heart risk.

Improve Brain Function: Biotin helps in the normal function of the brain. This B vitamin is helpful in the formation of the myelin sheath, a kind of fatty substance. Myelin sheath substance protects the brain from various problems and supports a healthy brain function. Moreover, the glucose metabolism by biotin also works to manage neurological symptoms of diabetes like neuropathy.

Improve Multiple Sclerosis: Biotin is one of the vitamins that help to reduce multiple sclerosis problems. It is a chronic disease in the brain and spinal cord. It affects the central nervous system and disturbs communication between the nerves. The anti-inflammatory and anti-bacterial biotin fight sclerosis in the body. Biotin supports nerve cell metabolism which helps to manage progressive MS (Multiple Sclerosis).

Biotin Deficiency Symptoms

Biotin is found in many foods and is synthesised by intestinal bacteria. Therefore, biotin deficiency is rare in normal diets. However, a diet that is out of balance or has dietary restrictions, like eating only egg whites for an extended period of time, might result in biotin deficiency.

If you use antibiotics or have been receiving haemodialysis for a long period, you are also at risk for biotin deficiency. Now, how can you check that your body is facing biotin deficiency? Here is a list of biotin deficiencies which will help you.

Possible symptoms of biotin deficiency include:

  • Red Rashes on the skin
  • Dry & Flaky Skin
  • Dry eyes
  • Hair loss
  • Hair greying
  • Brittle hair
  • Fatigue
  • Bit insomnia
  • Nausea
  • Depression
  • Lack of hunger
  • Dermatitis
  • Conjunctivitis
  • Glossitis
  • Hyperesthesia
  • Frequent upset stomach
  • Difficulty walking 
  • Muscle pain

Take biotin as a supplement and see a doctor if you have any of the aforementioned symptoms. Biotin tablets, biotin capsules, etc are supplements that can be added to the routine to overcome biotin deficiency.

Additionally, type 1 and type 2 diabetes as well as immunodeficiency disorders like Crohn's disease are thought to be impacted by biotin deficiency.

Biotin Food

Many animals and plant-based food are available that offer biotin naturally to the body. Here is a list of both sources of biotin-

Meat & Offal

  • Pork Chop
  • Beef Steak
  • Chicken breast
  • Roasted lamb
  • Beef liver
  • Chicken liver


  • Cauliflower
  • Carrots
  • Broccoli
  • Spinach
  • Cabbage
  • Sweet Potato


  • Bananas 
  • Avocados
  • Raspberries
  • Watermelon
  • Strawberries
  • Grapes

Grains, Nuts & Seeds

  • Oats
  • Brown Rice
  • Almonds
  • Peanuts
  • Sunflower Seeds
  • Walnuts

Fish & Others

  • Salmon
  • Tuna
  • Milk
  • Eggs
  • Mushrooms
  • Cheese

While consuming egg, you need to know that raw white egg is not compatible with biotin. It even affects and reduces the existing biotin level of the body. Avidin, a component of egg white, inhibits the binding of biotin. If you eat a lot of raw egg whites, you may be deficient in biotin. Avidin is inactivated by heating, so there is no problem eating egg whites if they are cooked.

Biotin Dosage

The right dose of biotin vitamin is also important. Here, we will talk about the biotin intake required per day by generation or group age as per the Food Safety and Standards Authority of India (FSSAI).

Daily intake for adults: The recommended dosage for adults is 40 μg/day. It is recommended for all adults between 18-64. It is the maximum level. Dosage differs depending on the age and gender of men and women. This is a limit for the one who has a deficiency of biotin. People who follow a normal diet are less likely to become deficient.

Daily intake for the elderly: There is not enough information about the elderly. Therefore, the recommended dose is 40 μg/day, the same as for adults.

Daily intake for children: For children, it is calculated based on age. For children between the 1-3 year, the recommended dose is 20 μg/day. For children between 4-10 years, the recommended dose of 25 μg/day. For children between 10-19 years, the recommended dose of 35 μg/day. You should add biotin as per your age.

Daily intake for pregnant/lactating women: It has been reported that during late pregnancy, urinary biotin excretion and serum biotin levels decrease, and organic acids associated with biotin enzymes increase. Therefore, you may need more biotin during pregnancy. The recommended dosage for pregnant women is 40 μg/day, the same as for adults. In addition, in order to calculate the recommended amount for lactating women, it is necessary to compare the amount of biotin taken by lactating women and non-lactating women. The recommended dosage for pregnant women is 45 μg/day.

Overdose Of Biotin

An overdose of biotin is quickly excreted in the urine, so overdose symptoms generally do not occur. In addition, no upper-tolerated dose has been defined because there have been no reports of health risks associated with overdose in healthy individuals following a typical diet. But, still, you should not overdose on it. Always follow the dose recommended by the professional.

High doses of biotin during pregnancy have been linked to reports of embryonic/fetal mortality in the first trimester as well as placental/ovarian atrophy.

Taking too much biotin might also have a negative impact on lab tests. Consider your biotin consumption when having clinical tests, for instance, as there have been instances of seemingly high values in thyroid hormone measures and apparently low values in thyroid-stimulating hormone readings.

FAQ (Frequently Asked Question) on Biotin


30-40 μg/day is recommended biotin. Well, the right dose of biotin varies as per age and body health.        


A biotin is a B group of vitamins.        


A quarter cup full of roasted almonds gives 1.5 mcg of biotin to the body.        


You can have biotin tablets 1 hour before the meal with a glass of water.        


Biotin is good for the proper working of the body. Mainly, it boosts hair health and helps in sugar metabolism. It is one of the essential vitamins required by the body like other vitamins.        


Offal, meat, fish, seeds, nuts and some vegetables are great sources of food that give biotin to the body.        


30 μg/day is the right amount of biotin to boost hair growth. Well, the right dose is always suggested by the professional.        


Biotin is beneficial for hair growth and reduces hair loss. The use of biotin is highly famous for healthy hair.        


Yes, biotin can be used daily.         


Yes, biotin boosts the metabolism in the body which shows an effect on weight management too.        

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